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Index of Multiple Deprivation

Download the summary report, data and guidance notes

The Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) is a measure of relative deprivation for small areas (Lower Super Output Areas (LSOA1)). It is a combined measure of deprivation based on a total of 37 separate indicators that have been grouped into seven domains, each of which reflects a different aspect of deprivation experienced by individuals living in an area.

Key findings of the IMD 2015 for Herefordshire -

12 areas (LSOAs1) in Herefordshire were among the 25% most deprived in England (i.e. the most deprived quarter) in terms of multiple deprivation. All are either in the Hereford city or the market towns of Leominster, Ross-on-Wye and for the first time Bromyard.

They include the same areas that were among the most deprived in 2010, with the addition of the four LSOA1s of ‘Leominster - Gateway’, ‘Hereford City Centre’, ‘Courtyard’ and ‘Bromyard Central’.

‘Golden Post - Newton Farm’ remains the most deprived area in the county – the only LSOA1 to be in the 10% most deprived nationally.

The least deprived areas are in Hereford city and the surrounding rural area, Ross-on-Wye, & Ledbury.

How the measures of deprivation work

Every LSOA1 in England is given a score for each of the domains and a combined score for the overall index. This score is used to rank all the LSOAs1 in England from the most deprived to the least deprived, allowing users to identify how deprived areas are relative to others.

For the purposes of identifying the most and least deprived areas, the list of LSOAs1 in England (or Herefordshire) is placed in order and divided into equal parts called percentiles. An LSOA1 is in the 25% most deprived nationally if it falls within the most deprived quarter of all areas in England. The most deprived areas are described as being in the 'top 10%' - note that these areas will also be in the 25% most deprived.


ONS have released several supporting documents to accompany the Indices on the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government , including details of the underlying methodology, how to use the indices and the main findings for England.  DCLG's Guidance note and Frequently Asked Questions document can also be downloaded from the resource box at the bottom of this page.


Multiple deprivation in the national context2

Maps showing the areas of Herefordshire that are amongst the most deprived nationally according to the Index of Multiple deprivation 2015.
Imd2015 Maps AltSource: Department of Communities and Local Government

Deprivation at county level

The Indices of Deprivation are designed to measure the relative deprivation of LSOAs1. There is no single summary measure of deprivation for larger areas, such as local authorities, because levels of deprivation and population density can vary considerably across them. However, DCLG have published several measures that highlight different aspects of deprivation, each generating a different ranking of areas. Comparison of the different measures is therefore needed to give a fuller description of deprivation for larger areas.

Out of 326 districts and unitary authorities in England, Herefordshire ranks between 126 and 193 (ie between the 40th and 60th percentiles) depending on whether the ranking is derived by averaging the domain score or rank or by local population concentration or extent of deprivation, with 1 being the most deprived. See section 3.3 of DCLG’s Research Report for further details of the different measures used.

Domains of the Indices of Deprivation 2015

        Income deprivation affecting children
        Income deprivation affecting older people


Health deprivation and disability

Education, Skills and Training Deprivation
        Children and Young People's sub-domain
Adult skills deprivation sub-domain 

Barriers to housing and services
        Barriers to housing sub-domain
        Geographical barriers to services sub-domain


Living environment
        Outdoor living environment sub-domain
        Indoor living environment sub-domain

1. Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs) are fixed statistical geographies of about 1,500 people designed by the Office for National Statistics (ONS). For more information please see the useful definitions page.
2. National context means how a particular area compares in terms of deprivation relative to all LSOAs in England i.e. the national rank.

Related resources

  • Indices of Deprivation 2015Indices of Deprivation 2015
  • Rank and decile of each LSOA in Herefordshire for the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 and each underlying domain of deprivation.
  • 444 Kb

Last updated: Wednesday, May 09, 2018